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    Saturday, 6 August 2016

    Networking Terms PDF : Computer Awareness for Bank Exams Study Notes

    Networking Terms PDF : Computer Awareness for Bank Exams Study Notes is one of the very important and much more scoring section in IBPS PO OR Upcoming Bank competitive exams. So, Today we are providing some useful study notes series in Networking Terms PDF : Computer Awareness for Bank Exam Study Notes in Computer notes for Bank exams. 

    In our previous article you studied networking terms for interview and networking terms and concepts. This is must to know every candidate to know network basic concepts and related quiz for better exam preparation. These all are acronyms specified as definitions for better understandable. So Practice with all networking terms explained with these computer networking basic terms and up to date your knowledge for upcoming bank and competitive recruitment exams. 

    Here is the complete Glossary of networking terms including definitions of many aspects of computer network technologies. These study notes are very helpful for upcoming bank exams like - SBI, LIC, IBPS PO and Clerk, RRB, NABARD, RBI Grade 'A' and 'B' Officer, SSC and Indian Railway Exams (RRB NTPC Exams).All the best.

    Hub- Broadcasts data from one port to all other ports in the network.

    Switch- Intelligent device which sends data to particular port.



    Bridge-Same function as switch but much more primitive and has lesser ports.

    Router-Connects all computers from a LAN to internet using same IP.

    IEEE 802.11- WiFi standard- 802.11 b has speed of 11 Mbps, 802.11 g has a speed of 54 Mbps and 802.11 N uses multiple wireless signals and antennas and has speeds of over 100Mbps.

    Connecting Cables- RJ 11(Telephone Cable), RJ 45 (LAN Cable), Twisted pair cables(used in connecting 2 computers), Null Modem Cable(RS232) , Optial Fibre Cable(Gigabit Ethernet).

    OSI Model - : OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is reference model for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so that the digital communication products and software programs they create will interoperate.

    TCP/IP Model -:The Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was created by the Department of Defense (DoD) to make sure and protect data integrity, and also maintained communications in the time of disastrous war. However, if designed and deployed properly according to standard, a TCP/IP network can be a truly reliable and flexible one. Essentially, the Department of Defense (DoD) Model is a reduced version of the OSI Reference Model. The DoD model based on four layers:

    MAC address -: The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the  network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.

    Bandwidth -: Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth.

    IP Address –: A unique string of numbers separated by dot that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network. The class range of IP address is given below-
    Class A -   0.0.0.0   -  127.255.255.255
    Class B -   128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255
    Class C -  192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255
    Class D -  224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
    Class E -  240.0.0.0 - 247.255.255.255

    ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – is a portion of the TCP/IP protocol that maps an IP address to the physical address
    (Ethernet Address) of the device that it is on, helping to identify devices on an Ethernet LAN.


    Access Point (AP) – is a station that transmits and receives data (sometimes referred to as a transceiver). An access point
    connects users to other users within the network and also can serve as the point of interconnection between the WLAN and a
    fixed wire network. The number of access points a WLAN needs is determined by the number of users and the size of the
    network.

    Backbone – is the part of the communications network intended to and designed to carry the bulk of traffic. It provides
    connectivity between subnetworks in an enterprise-wide network. 

    Backplane – is the communication channels of a single device's architecture, such as in a hub, switch or concentrator. 

    Broadcast Domain – is the set of all devices that will receive broadcast frames originating from any device within the set. Broadcast domains are typically bounded by VLANs or routers because routers do not forward broadcast frames.

    Circuit – is a connection between endpoints over a physical medium. 

    Data Encryption – is accomplished by applying a special scrambling code that makes the data unreadable to anyone who does not have a decryption key. The message or information (plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, turning it into unreadable information (ciphertext.) This is done with an encryption key. Authorized personnel with access to this key can unscramble it. 

    DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) – is a standards-based protocol for dynamically allocating and managing IP addresses. DHCP runs between individual computers and a DHCP server to allocate and assign IP addresses to the computers as well as limit the time for which the computer can use the address. When the time expires on the use of the IP address, the computer must contact the DHCP server again to obtain an address.

    DNS (Domain Name System) – is a TCP/IP service that enables you to specify a symbolic name instead of an IP address. A symbolic name consists of a user name and a domain name in the format user name@domain name. The user name corresponds to the host number in the IP address. The domain name corresponds to the network number in the IP address. A symbolic name might be admin@meritmock.com or admin@meritmock.edu. The domain identifier is the last part of the domain name, and identifies the type of organization to which the host belongs. DNS maintains a database of network numbers and corresponding domain names. When you use a symbolic name, DNS translates the domain name into an IP address, and sends it over the network. When the Internet service provider receives the message, it uses its own database to look up the user name corresponding to the host number. 

    Ethernet – is a local area network specification for a transmission system including Layers 1 and 2 of the OSI 7-layer model using the CSMA/CD access method. It operates over copper, coaxial, fiber, wireless at speeds from 10 Mbps to multi-Gbps rates.


    Firewall – is a hardware/software tool that allows a network administrator to determine what type of users can access the resources on the network. The firewall provides a mechanism to monitor and funnel data from authorized users (only) through the firewall to and from the network. A firewall may be a software program that runs on a UNIX or other platforms, part of a proprietary operating system, purpose built device or network appliance. A firewall by itself does not perform the routing function. 

    Gateway – is a point of entrance to and exit from a communications network. Viewed as a physical entity, a gateway is that node that translates between two otherwise incompatible networks or network segments. Gateways perform code and protocol conversion to facilitate traffic between data highways of differing architecture. In OSI terms, a gateway is a device that provides mapping at all seven layers of the OSI model. A gateway can be thought of as a function within a system that enables communications with the outside world.  Needed when 2 different network technologies are being used. Acts as translator.

    Host – is a computer on a network. 

    Intranet – is a network internal to an organization that uses Internet protocols.

    Internet – is the global network of networks used to exchange information using the TCP/IP protocol. It allows for electronic mail and the accessing ad retrieval of information from remote sources. 

    IP Subnet – is a way to subdivide a network into smaller networks, so you can have a greater number of computers on a network with a single IP address. The IP subnet is a number that you append to the IP address. For example, 195.112.56.75/14, 195.112.56.75/15, and 195.112.56.75/16 are all IP addresses with subnets of 14, 15, and 16. 

    Layer – is a term used to describe a group of communication functions and the protocols implemented to perform them as defined by a network standards organization, most often referring to a group of functions as described by the OSI 7-Layer Model designated by the ISO. 

    OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) – is a reference model used to describe layers of a network and the types of functions expected at each layer. The OSI model is used as a standard, letting developers of networks and communication systems rely on the presence of certain functions at certain places in a standard system. Top to bottom, the seven layers are:
    1. application
    2. presentation
    3. session
    4. transport 
    5. network
    6. data link
    7. physical
    The physical and data link layers have to do with hardware, wires, signals on wires, and basic addressing functions, such as media access control (MAC). In the network layer, information from different networking protocols is distinguished, which is where the internet protocol (IP) functions. In the transport layer, data is packaged for transport in a size and organization appropriate for its intended environment. This is where transport control protocol (TCP) works. The session, presentation, and application layers keep information streaming in and convert it to a usable format. 

    Repeater – is a device used in a network to strengthen a signal as it is passed along the network cable.

    SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – is the standard protocol for exchanging mail over TCP/IP networks.

    SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) – is a standard way for computers to share networking information. In SNMP, two types of communicating devices exist: agents and managers. An agent provides networking information to a manager application running on another computer. The agents and managers share a database of information, called the Management Information Base (MIB). An agent can use a message called a traps-PDU to send unsolicited information to the manager. SNMP security is implemented using the community name sent with each request. 

    Topology (Physical and Logical) – The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Logical topology is the method used to pass the information between workstations. Issues involving logical topologies are discussed on the Protocol chapter

    VLAN (Virtual LAN) – is a broadcast domain created by switches. Networks are subdivided into multiple VLANs by switch ports, MACs address, etc. to control broadcast domains.

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) – is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. A VPN ensures privacy through security procedures and tunneling protocols such as the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) and IPSec. Data is encrypted at the sending end and decrypted at the receiving end.

    Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) – is a computer networking protocol that provides for automatic assignment of available IP routers to participating hosts. This increases the availability and reliability of routing paths via automatic default gateway selections on an IP subnetwork.

    WAN (Wide Area Network) – is a data network typically extending a LAN outside a building or beyond a campus, over IXC or LEC lines to link to other LANs at remote sites. Typically, created by using bridges or routers to connect geographically separated LANs.

    Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) – is a term for certain types of WLANs. Wi-Fi can apply to products that use any 802.11 standard.


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