Wednesday, 3 February 2016

How to Solve Input Output in Reasoning Questions

How to Solve Input Output in Reasoning Questions

In IBPS exams we can accept input output questions in logical reasoning section From the Input- Output section good number of questions have been asked in previous IBPS exams and also in RRB exams . We can accept nearly 5 questions based on input output series method. So understanding the concept of input output series method is very important 

How to Solve Input Output Bank Exam Reasoning Questions

In this input output method   we are supposed to imagine that input is fed to machine . Machine process the input and arrange the input in each step
and produce the final output in the final step We have to determine the pattern and based on that solve the questions. A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step to produce final output

In this machine arrangement can be of following types

1)     Numeric numbers arranging in decreasing order in each step
2)     Words arranging in alphabetic order from A-Z
3)  In series there is both numeric and alphabetic words, so in one step number is arrange in decreasing order and in other step word is arrange in alphabetic order from A-Z.
4)      Number can be arrange by odd and even numbers. Odd numbers are arrange in decreasing order than even number in decreasing order.
5)      Words are arrange in alphabetic order in extreme left and numbers are arrange in decreasing order at extreme right in each step
6)      First words are arrange in alphabetic order than numbers are arrange in decreasing order.

We have given few examples which help you to better understand the input output questions

Problem :1

Q:- An Input /Output  device arranges numbers step-by-step in a particular order according to a set of rules. The device stops arranging the numbers when the final result is obtained. –

Input-   94   65   35 100 54  69
Step 1  100  94  65  35  54  69           
Step 2  100  94  69  65  35  54
Step 3   100  94  69  65  54  35

As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following question the appropriate steps for the input given below :    

Study the above arrangement carefully and give the answer to the following question –


What is the last step of the input given below?

8        70  90 17 35 40


Solution :

Based on the above series  find the last step of the given arrangement. You will easily find out that the numbers are arranged in descending order. In the  step 1 higher number i.e.  100 is arranged come first , only one element in each step is arranged .Than in step 2, 94 is already arranged so 69  which is third highest number comes and so on .

Following these steps we have to find steps required to completed the above arrangement .

Input    8    70    90    17   35   40

Step1   90   8     70     17   35   40

Step2   90   70    8      17   35   40

Step3   90   70    40    8     17   35

Step4   90   70    40    35    8    17

Step5   90   70    40   35   17     8

Answer:  So 5 steps are required to complete the given arrangement . and from above we can tell last step i.e. 90  70  40  35  17  8

Problem :2

 Q: A word and number arrangement machine when given an input  line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule .Following is the illustration of input and rearrangement

Input : lock   come  apple   them  done  square
Step1  apple  lock    come   them  done   square
Step2  apple  come   lock    them  done   square
Step3  apple   come  done   lock   them   square
Step4  apple   come  done    lock  them   square
Step5  apple   come  done   lock    square  them

As per the rule followed in the above steps find out in each of following questions the appropriate  steps for the input given below

Input:  hand   sand  major   your watch  action 

Q:1 How many steps would be needed to complete the arrangement

Solution :From the above input output series  we have to carefully see the pattern how the words are arranging in each step .Based on that we have arrange the words in each step and get final output .As in above pattern words are arranging in alphabet order A-Z in each step. So we can get final output based on that

Input: hand   sand  major   your watch  action 

Step1  action  hand  sand   major your   watch

Step2  action  hand  major sand your   watch

Step3  action  hand  major  sand watch your

As in step2 hand is already arrange in alphabet order so we arrange the next word in alphabet order in same step

So THREE steps are required to complete the given arrangement

Problem :3

 Q: A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement. 

Input: gone name 43 39 18 for again 66 

Step 1 : 66 gone name 43 39 18 for again 
Step 2 : 66 again gone name 43 39 18 for 
Step 3 : 66 again 43 gone name 39 18 for 
Step 4 : 66 again 43 for gone name 39 18 
Step 5 : 66 again 43 for 39 gone name 18 
Step 6 : 66 again 43 for 39 gone name 18 
Step 7 : 66 again 43 for 39 gone 18 name


As per the rule followed in the above steps find out in each of following questions the appropriate  steps for the input given below :



 ·  Input: their 19 27 dent are 91 hour zero 31 16 chairs. 

    Which of the following will be step 4 ?

A) 91 are 31 their 19 27 dent hour zero 16 chairs 
B.) 91 their 19 27 dent are hour zero 31 16 chairs 
C.) 91 are 31 chairs their 19 27 dent hour zero 16 
D.) 91 are 31 chairs 27 dent 19 their hour zero 16

Solution 1 : From the above arrangement pattern we find that  it consist of two series the numeric number  series and alphabet series . The numeric numbers are arranged in decreasing order and alphabet are arranged with first alphabet of every word  from A-Z alphabet which appear first to lower down in series and in one step number is arranged and in other step a word is arranged .


Input: their 19 27 dent are 91 hour zero 31 16 chairs

Step1  91  their 19  27  dent are  hour zero 31 16 chairs
Step2  91  are  their 19   27  dent hour zero 31 16 chairs
Step3  91  are   31  their  19   27 dent hour zero16 chairs
Step4  91  are   31 chairs their 19 27  dent hour zero 16
Step5  91  are   31 chairs 27  their 19  dent hour zero 16
Step6  91  are  31  chairs  27  dent their 19  hour zero 16
Step7  91  are  31 chairs  27  dent  19   their hour zero 16
Step8  91  are  31 chairs 27  dent  19    hour  their zero 16
Step9  91 are   31 chairs 27  dent  19   hour   16 their  zero

So from above arrangement we can tell what the possible arrangement in step 4

Answer –C

2.Which of the following would be final arrangement ?

A) 91 are their 27   19  dent  hour zero 31  16    chairs
B) 91 are   31 chairs 27  dent  19   hour   16 their  zero
C) 91  are  31 chairs  27 19   dent  hour  16  their zero
D) 91  are  31  chairs 27 dent  19   zero hour 16   their

Answer – B , We can easily find out the step four from the above.


3.Which of the following would be the Step 1 ?

A) 91 their 19   are 27   dent  hour zero 31  16    chairs
B) 91 are   31 chairs 27  dent  19   hour   16 their  zero
C) 91  are  31 chairs  27 19   dent  hour  16  their zero
D) 91  chairs are  31  27 dent  19   zero hour 16   their
E) Non of these

Answer : E) Non of these .As none of given options matches with Step 1

Problem: 4

Q: A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement               

Input: sap    28   have 18  99    48   luck   nice  78  ramp
Step1 have  sap   28    18  48  luck  nice   78   ramp  99
Step2 luck  have sap   28  18   48    nice  ramp  99   78
Step3 nice  luck  have sap 28   18    ramp 99    78 48
Step4 ramp  nice luck have sap 18      99 78 48 28
Step5 sap   ramp  nice luck  have 99   78 48 28 18

 As per the rule followed in the above steps find out in each of following questions the appropriate  steps for the input given below

Input:  49   late  zen  15  82  yet  can  vast  33  alt  87  54


Q:1 How many steps would be needed to complete the arrangement?

1) IV           2) V            3)VI     4)VII           5)Non of these

Solution : From careful analysis of the given input , various steps of rearrangement in step 1 word which will appear first in dictionary is placed at extreme left position and highest number is placed in extreme right position . In step 2 word which appear second place in dictionary is placed at extreme left and second highest number is placed at extreme right .same is followed in all next steps


Input:  49   late  zen  15  82  yet  can  vast  33  alt  87  54
Step 1  alt    49  late   zen 15  82  yet  can  vast  33  54  87
Step2   can   alt  49   late  zen 15 yet  vast  33   54  87  82
Step3   late  can alt     49 zen  15 yet  vast  33 87   82  54
Step4   vast late  can   alt zen 15 yet   33    87   82  54 49
Step5     yet vast  late  can alt zen 15  87    82   54 49 33
Step6    zen yet  vast  late can alt  87 82     54 49 33 15 

Answer : 3) VI


Q2:Which step number would be the following output :

Vast late can alt zen 15 yet 33 87 82 54 49

1) III           2)II        3) VII            4)IV    5) None of these

Solution : From the above series we can find out which is the step
Answer :  4 ) IV

Note understand yet!!!!

One of the most scoring questions in any Banking exam is Input-Output. These questions look tough and often take up huge chunks of your valuable time in solving. With the SBI PO prelim paper brought down to 1 hour duration, it is of vital importance that these questions be solved quickly. Learning short tricks to handle these types of questions will significantly boost your reasoning score.
Be warned, this method looks tougher than it is. You will need to sit down with a pen and paper to understand this one. But it is truly an easy method. Once you grasp it, you can cut down your time spent on input-output questions to less than a quarter of what you used to. If earlier you spent 8-10 minutes trying to solve 5 input output questions, you can now solve them in 2 minutes! Isn’t that amazing? So all we ask for is patience while you read on.
WHAT IS INPUT OUTPUT
Machine input or Input Output is a question type, where the candidate is given some kind of word and number arrangement. With each subsequent operation, the arrangement of the words and numbers changes. These operations are performed until a final arrangement is reached or is performed in loop. The student is required to identify the hidden pattern in the rearrangement and apply it to the questions.
Example:
  1. A word arrangement machine when given an input of words, rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and steps rearrangement.
1.3
This is the final arrangement and STEP IV is the last step for this input.
What should be the last step of the following input?
INPUT: Coal Steer Brief Nap Blast Cry
Explanation: The given rearrangement has a pattern that can be followed from the input step to the final step, which is Step IV. Observe carefully. The rearrangement follows the following patterns:
  1. The rearrangement is taking place from left to right.
  2. The rearrangement is taking place one word at a time.
  3. The rearrangement is done on the basis of decreasing alphabetic order.
NOTE: To understand the pattern, often it is sufficient to look at the input, 1st, 2nd and final steps of the arrangement.
Now if we apply the same pattern rules to the second input given, we can immediately tell what the output (final step after rearrangement) would be:
INPUT:      Coal    Steer   Brief   Nap    Blast   Cry
OUTPUT:  Steer   Nap     Cry     Coal    Brief   Blast
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
This was a simple example involving only words. Some questions come with only numbers. Others come as a mix of words and numbers. More complicated ones may even involve symbols. But for the sake of the Bank PO exams, it is important to concentrate on the questions that are mixes of words and numbers.
Based on the logic used behind the rearrangement, we can classify these types of questions as:
A. Rearrangements based on Ordering:
Words are arranged alphabetically (forward or reversed) as per their positions in the dictionary while numbers are arranged in ascending/descending order.
Both words and numbers could be arranged individually or simultaneously in each step. The rearrangement can start from the leftmost side or the rightmost side of the sentence and sometimes even simultaneously from both the ends. The rearrangement could either start with a word or a number. Whatever the finer details may be, in these kinds of rearrangements, one or two words/numbers are shifted at a time, without changing the order of the remaining words/numbers.
1.2
Here, Step III is the final step and the rearrangement is done simultaneously from both front and back ends. The rearrangements are done thusly: the numbers are arranged in ascending order one by one from the left end, with the next biggest number being added to the right of the previous number. The words are arranged in descending order one by one from the right end, with the last word in the dictionary going to the rightmost end, and earlier entries in the dictionary getting added in subsequent steps to the left of that word.
B. Rearrangements based on Interchanging the Positions of Words and Numbers:
Specific positions are selected and the positions of only those words/numbers are exchanged. The positions of all others remain unchanged.
1.12
Step VII is the final step of the input. The underlined words are used to indicate the words that will be interchanged in the each subsequent step.
C. Rearrangements based on Mathematical operations:
Some mathematical operation (like squaring the number, adding the digits within the number, some common number added/subtracted/multiplied/divided to each number etc.) is applied on the numbers in each step.
1.4
Step III is the final step. Clearly in this example, the unit’s digits of the left most and right most number are simultaneously being subtracted from the numbers themselves. This is followed by the number to the right of the left most one, and to the left of the right most one.
TIPS ABOUT NUMBER OF STEPS
  1. If there are ‘n’ words/digits in the input then at most ‘n-1’ steps are required to rearrange it completely.
  2. Number of words/digits arranged until the present step is greater than or equal to the present step number.
  3. If input is not given we cannot determine the previous step from given step number or we cannot determine input from given step number.
HOW TO SOLVE
These questions can be solved by the following methods:
1. We can solve these questions by writing each step of the given input on paper.
Remember – do not write the complete word each time; to save time, just write the first letter or however many letters of each word you need to uniquely identify it.
Example:
Input:   32   pure   girl   beautiful   49    63    78    random   rickshaw
Label:   32      P        G          B           49    63    78        Ra         Ri
2. We could go for a shorter method where instead of writing each step again and again we number each word/number of the input as per their position in each step. So if the arrangement follows a “number-descending-from-left-and-letters-ascending-from-right-alternately-pattern”, we need to number these as follows:
1.5
Clearly the pattern is, ‘send the biggest number left’. In the next step, send the highest word right. Continue the pattern till the input is completely rearranged.
To minimize the steps, let us look at all the elements on the basis of their positions. We only need to see the first two steps and the output to figure out which number/word goes where. The order in which the element gets rearranged is the number each element gets.
INPUT:   32        pure     girl       beautiful          49        63        78        rickshaw          random
LABEL:     7           6           8           9                       5           3          1             2                       4
Since ‘78’ is the first element that will be rearranged according to the pattern, it will be labeled 1. The next element to be rearranged will be ‘rickshaw’. So it will be labeled 2. The next element to be rearranged will be the next highest number. So without even writing out the remaining steps you could label ‘63’ as 3. And similarly ‘random’ would become 4. And so on and so forth.
While rearranging by this method, keep the following four cases in mind:
Case 1: When we go in single direction, i.e. words/digits are arranged either from left to right or right to left. In this case, auto filling of words/digits could take place because some numbers/words arrange themselves. So how do we go about numbering our elements in this case? For convenience’s sake, let us think of all the elements being arranged left to right.
  1. Number each word/number in the manner shown above as per their order of arrangement in accordance with the pattern depicted in the question. Think of it as a step-by-step process. After each numbering, you need to stop and check.
  2. After you identify the first element, number it (1). Then identify the second element. Check all the elements to its left. Have you numbered all of them yet? If yes, then number this one (1a). If not, then number it (2). Then identify the third element. Check all the elements to its left. Have you numbered all of them yet? If yes, then this does not get a new step number. If no, then it gets a fresh step number. And the process continues. Here is an illustration.
1.6
Step VII is the last step of the input
Q. Following the above pattern, how many steps will be required to complete the arrangement for the below given input?
84  out   sown   even   35   54   around  46
Solution:
Input: In the given illustration, the words/digits are being arranged in the following manner: the lowest digit is arranged at leftmost of the sentence and all others are shifted to the right side as it is and in second step, highest word of dictionary is arranged right of the previously arranged number and so on. The next higher digit and next highest word is arranged in subsequent pair of steps.
Here is how you would go about numbering these elements. Note that underlined elements represent those ones to the left that you haven’t numbered yet.
1.7
Here, 6a and 6b are not given further values at the time of filling, as all elements to the left of these two have been filled already. Hence, these two entities are arranged automatically in step 6. In addition, step 6 is the last step of the input, so six steps are required to complete the arrangement.
NOTE: Now whichever step is asked in the question, take the part of the solution up to the required step number to get the answer. Arrange the numbered elements according to their labels, and shift the remaining to the right, while leaving their order unchanged.
NOTE: If the rearrangement is to be done from the right, the process of checking would be reversed. Now instead of checking to the left, you would have to check to the right to see if there are any unnumbered elements.
Case 2: When we go in both directions, with elements filling in from the inside, auto fillingcould still take place. So we need to take that into account when numbering. Based on which direction the element goes, it is numbered with an L (left) or an R (right) attached to it. When considering items labeled with L, check to see if there are any unlabeled elements to its left and when considering items labeled with R, check to see if there are any unlabeled elements to its right.
1.8
Step III is the final step of the rearrangement.
Q. Following the above pattern, how many steps will be required to complete the arrangement for the below given input?
goat  out   34   59   set   75   peon   28
Solution:
Input: The rearrangement clearly happens from both directions simultaneously, but from the inside. The fact that the rearrangement is happening from the inside makes a huge difference. The numbers are arranged in ascending order from the left and the words are arranged in descending order of their appearance in the dictionary, but from the right.
Here is how you go about numbering these elements. Note that underlined elements represent those ones to the left of the ‘L’ elements that you haven’t numbered yet. And the italicized elements represent the ones to the right of the ‘R’ elements that you haven’t numbered yet.
1.9
Now, it is easy to answer the question based on the numbering. The answer is three steps.
Q. Following the above pattern, what will be the second step after rearrangement for the below given input?
goat  out   34   59   set   75   peon   28
Solution:
1.10
The underlined elements represent the remaining elements unchanged in order.
 Case 3: When we go in both directions with elements filling in from the outside, i.e. we place digits/numbers left to the left most word/ right to the right most word. In this case, noauto filling of digits/numbers takes place i.e. each word is numbered separately. Keep in mind the following:
  1. Number of pairs of words/digits is equal to the number of steps.
  2. Identify the pattern in the input rearrangement. Then number the elements going left in their pattern order with 1L, 2L, 3L and so on. And number the elements going right in their pattern order with 1R, 2R,3R and so on.
  3. There is no auto filling, so there is no need to check step by step. The numbering can be done in one go.
1.11
STEP V is the last step of the input.
 Q. Which is the 5th letter from right side in step V of the following input?
Input:   87       when   show    14        35        new     beat     ink       51        28
Label:   5L        5R        4R        1L        3L        3R        1R        2R      4L       2L
Solution: In the given illustration, the words/digits being arranged in the following manner: in the first step, lowest digit and lowest word in dictionary are placed at left most and right most side respectively, of the string and all other entities are placed as it is. Then in the 2nd step, next lowest digit and word are arranged to the left and right of the previously arranged digit and word simultaneously and so on. Therefore, arrangement is from left to left + right to right.
Here L1, L2 so on are used to represent left side and R1, R2 so on to represent right side.
Hence step 5 of the input is
Step 5:   87     51    35    28    14    beat    ink    new    show    when
So 5th from the right side is ‘beat’
NOTEIn this case 5th from right is not R5, but R1. So be careful while answering this type of question. Count backwards from the highest number label of that step in such cases.
Case 4: In mixed form i.e. both case 1 and 2 are used in one input then both the rules are used for each side
NOTE: If pairing of words and digits/words and words/ digits and digits is observed i.e. both are placed simultaneously in each step and in case if one is auto filled & other is not then no step is skipped.
Its a blessing to have these Time saving short Tricks for Input Output in Reasoning just when the exam is just few days away. Share this knowledge with your fellow mates and let them also benefit from the same.
Also read:
  • Reasoning लगती है मुस्किल - जानिये तैयारी कैसे करें
  • LIC AAO Exam Reasoning New Pattern, Syllabus Study Plan & Preparation Tips
  • Reasoning Notes for ibps upcoming bank exams
  • Reasoning For IBPS Bank Exam: Coding and Decoding Tricks
  • Reasoning for IBPS Bank Exam : Directions Sense Test
  • Reasoning Study Guide & Tips for IBPS PO/Clerk Exam
  • Self Prepare Reasoning for Bank and Competitive Exams
  • Tricks to solve Syllogism Questions Quickly Study Notes
  • REASONING SIMPLIFIED: Tips to Clear Reasoning Section
  • Statement - Assumptions Problems Examples (Reasoning Guide Notes)


  • Article by : Rajendra Rathore- Jodhpur

    No comments:

    Post a Comment

    Advertisement