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Saturday, 31 December 2016

Tricks to solve Syllogism Questions Quickly Study Notes

Syllogism for IBPS Bank PO and Clerk exam is an important chapter for every competitive exam in which there is Reasoning ability section. In IBPS Bank Exam 2015, there were 5 questions from Syllogism. You know our main purpose is SYLLOGISM MADE EASY So, we uploading this syllogism tricks pdf for your high marks in competitive exams. Syllogism is core part of Reasoning for bank exams that comes in competitive examinations. Here you can download Shortcuts and Tricks for Syllogism PDF. We provided much more study notes tricks to solve reasoning questions for bank exams aspirants. After reading our reasoning tricks in Hindi this is another guide article for bank job seekers.


If you are thinking of appearing for IBPS Exam, you must understand the basics concept for solving a particular problem. The exam comprises of 5 sections namely:

  • Quantitative Aptitude
  • Reasoning
  • Computer
  • English/ Hindi Language
  • General Awareness
Although all the topics are equally important but special attention should be given to Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude sections. These areas are little bit tough to crack. Hence the easy methods for solving one of the important topic for reasoning section for IBPS Exam i.e. Syllogism is discussed here.

Solving Syllogism for IBPS Exam:

To solve the Syllogism section for IBPS Exam you need to know the following thing that includes all about syllogism as well as the tips and tricks to solve it.

What is Syllogism?

It is a kind of logical argument in which the conclusion is inferred form the premise. You will be given one preposition which is generally the conclusion and you have to infer from two or more such statements.
For example:
Premise 1: All men are fathers.
Premise 2: All fathers are caring.
Conclusion: All men are caring.

The standard way of solving a Syllogism is with the help of a Venn diagram. But in the exam you will not be able to draw a Venn diagram because of the time limit. To help you, here are some basic tips and tricks to solve the problems:

Shortcut rules between two statements which are in the order:

  • All + All = All
  • All + No =No
  • All + Some = No conclusion
  • Some + All = Some
  • Some + Some = No Conclusion
  • Some + No = Some Not
  • No + No = No Conclusion
  • No + All = Some not reversed
  • No + Some = Some not reversed
Cancel out the common terms in the given two statements and on the remaining terms, apply Syllogism rules and solve. The very first step is never assume. In syllogism a cat can either be a human or a dog can be a bird if the statement says so. All you have to do is to completely forget what you know and follow what the statement is saying.

Remember some implications:

  • All <=> some, for example : All A are B also implies that some A are B and Some B are A
  • Some <=> Some, for example: Some A are B also implies that some B are A
  • No<=> No, for example :No A are B also implies that No B are A

Step 1: Classification of statements

Usually each statement has the following format:
“abc subject is/are (not) predicate.”
e.g.
All Cats Are Dogs.
Some Pigs Are not birds.
Based on the usage of “xyz” and “not”, the classification of the statements is as following
  1. All cats are dogs: Universal Positive (UP)
  2. Some dogs are birds: Particular Positive (PP)
  3. No bird is a pig: Universal Negative        (UN)
  4. Some pigs are not birds: Particular Negative (PN)
You have to remember the following words. You classify the statement accordingly whenever they are used:
  • Universal (positive or negative): All, every, none, only, not a single, any etc.
  • Particular (positive or negative): Some, many, a few, not many, most of, almost, generally, quite a few often, very little frequently, etc.

STEP 2: Standard Format – Conversation

Priority order: PP>UN>UP
Basically, a 2 premise Syllogism should the following basic form:
  1. A—>B
  2. B—>C
If in case it is not, then you should convert it to the above format.
NOTE:
  • Question statements should have only three terms. Like A, B and C, as shown above.
  • In the exam, if you encounter two question statements with four or more terms then you should be relieved! All you have to do is check the answer “no conclusion can be drawn
E.g. if the statements are
  1. All cats are birds
  2. Some dogs are pigs
A–>B
C–>D
Here owing to four terms (cats, dogs, birds, and pigs) no conclusion can be drawn.

CONVERSION:

Now you have to learn how to convert the statements.

Universal Positive (UP)

Given Statement: All Cats are Dogs
The valid conversations can be:
  • Some Cats are dogs (Particular Positive)
  • Some dogs are cats (Particular Positive)
Hence, UP can be converted into PP.
Note: Only A is B –> All B are A
If the statement is “Only Birds are cats”, then better convert it into “All cats are Birds”.

Universal Negative (UN)

Given Statement: No Cats are pigs
Valid conversations can be:
  • Some pigs are not cats (Particular Negative)
  • No pigs are cats (Universal Negative)
Hence, UN can be converted to PN or UN.

Particular Positive (PP)

Given Statement: Some Cats are Dogs
Valid conversations can be:
Some dogs are cats (Particular Positive)
It means PP can be converted into PP only.

Particular Negative (PN)

In Particular negative statements, no conversion can be made.
Example: Some Cats are not Dogs
Hence,
  • Universal Positive (UP): Only PP
  • Universal Negative (UN): PN or UN
  • Particular Positive (PP): Only PP
  • Particular Negative (PN): Not possible.

 STEP 3: No Conclusion Combos

When two question statements are in following format, they are the non-conclusion combos:
  • Universal Positive (UP), Particular Positive (PP), Particular Negative (PN)
  • Universal Negative (UN), Universal Negative (UN), Particular Negative (PN)
  • Particular Positive (PP), Particular Positive (PP), Particular Negative (PN)
  • Particular Negative (PN), Any other (UP, UN, PP, PN)
For all the above combos, the answer would be no conclusion.

STEP 4: Conclusive Combos

Universal Positive (UP) + Universal Positive (UP) = Universal Positive (UP)
Universal Positive (UP) + Universal Negative (UN) = Universal Negative (UN)
Universal Negative (UN) + Universal positive (UP) = Particular Negative (PN)
Universal Negative (UN) + Particular Positive (PP) = Particular Negative
Particular Positive (PP) + Universal Positive (UP) = Particular Positive (PP)
Particular Positive (PP) + Universal Negative (UN) = Particular Negative (PN)
If we take the first statement from A to B and the Second statement from B to C, then the conclusion is usually in the format of A to C except when first statement is Universal Negative (UN).

Bonus Tips for Simplifying Syllogism Problems:

  1. The First Tip to crack the Syllogisms is to NEVER ASSUME. A cat can be a human and a dog can be a bird if the statement says so then follow the statement even when you know both dogs and cats are animals. Forget what you know and follow the condition of the statement.
  2. If a two related statement begins with All and followed by Some, it will conclude with Some
  3. If a two related statement begins with Some, followed by All it will conclude with All
  4. If two related statements begins with All and followed by No, it will end with NO
  5. If two related statements begin with All and is followed by All, it will end with All
  6. If two related statements begin with Some and is followed by Some the conclusion will in most cases be None
  7. If No two statements are related the answer will be No Conclusion
  8. Reverse also applies:
    • It means if the statement says All X is Y then it means that Some Y will also be X
    • If it says Some B is W it also means that Some W is B
    • If it says No Y is X then also means that No X is Y
These are all the things you need to know. Study religiously and do well!

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