Sunday, 20 December 2015

Banking Awareness : Know about WTO and its Predecessor

World Trade Organisation(WTO) – International Trade

Banking Awareness : Know about WTO and its Predecessor

 
Dear mm experts, We are presenting you a a brief article on WTO (World Trade Organization) and its Predecessor. Article is useful for various bank exams, insurance exams & SSC CGL exam.

The WTO's predecessor, the GATT, was established on a provisional basis after the Second World War in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation - notably the "Bretton Woods" institutions now known as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
The original 23 GATT countries were among over 50 which agreed a draft Charter for an International Trade Organization (ITO) - a new specialized agency of the United Nations. The Charter was intended to provide not only world trade disciplines but also contained rules relating to employment, commodity agreements, restrictive business practices.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948.
The formation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995 was a watershed development in the sphere of international trade. It was a major advancement in the multilateral trade regime, with the previous regime embodied in the form of a treaty known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
The WTO’s predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was established after World War II in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation – notably the Bretton Woods institutions known as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
GATT was signed in 1948 and had close to 30 member countries. Its primary objective was to see that impediments to international trade — mainly in the form of tariffs — were reduced or removed in order to facilitate the movement of goods across borders. In the course of six to seven rounds of negotiation, it succeeded in getting countries to lower their tariff rates, thus enabling greater movement of goods.
The end of the Uruguay Round (UR) resulted in the formation of the WTO, which established a substantial set of rules regarding trade in goods — including agricultural goods, included agreements on trade in services and on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights, as well as a strong and comprehensive mechanism to settle trade disputes between member countries
WTO’s current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo, who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland. A trade facilitation agreement known as the Bali Package was reached by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organization’s history.

Functions of World Trade Organisation (WTO)

Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. Among the various functions of the WTO, these are regarded by analysts as the most important:
  • Monitoring national trade policies
  • Technical assistance and training for developing countries
  • Cooperation with other international organizations
  • It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements.
  • It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes.
The procedures for the appointment of the WTO director-general were published in January 2003. Additionally, there are four deputy directors-general. As of 1 October 2013, under director-general Roberto Azevêdo, the four deputy directors-general are Yi Xiaozhun of China, Karl-Ernst Brauner of Germany, Yonov Frederick Agah of Nigeria and David Shark of the United States.

Objectives of World Trade Organisation (WTO)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) deals with the global rules of trade between nations. Important objectives of WTO are mentioned below:
  • To implement the new world trade system as visualised in the Agreement;
  • To ensure that developing countries secure a better balance in the sharing of the advantages resulting from the expansion of international trade corresponding to their developmental needs.
  • To enhance competitiveness among all trading partners so as to benefit consumers and help in global integration;
  • To increase the level of production and productivity with a view to ensuring level of employment in the world;
  • To improve the level of living for the global population and speed up economic development of the member nations.
Revision Notes Banking Awareness Now for WTO:

The objectives of GATT are as follows:

1. To encourage full employment and large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective       demand.
2. To improve the world production and exchange of goods.
3. To ensure the full use of world resources.
4. To ensure a steady improvement in the living standards of people in member countries.
5. To settle the disputes through consultation within the framework of GATT.national investment and     services.

GATT Rounds:

Between 1947 and 1995 there were 8 rounds of negotiations between the participating countries. The first 6 rounds were related to curtailing tariff rates, 7th round included the non-tariff obstacles.
The 8th round was entirely different from the previous rounds because it included a number of new subjects for consideration. This 8th round known as “Uruguay Round” became most controversial. The discussions at this round only gave birth to World Trade Organization (WTO).

The major defects of GATT are as follows:

1. No Enforcement Authority:
The GATT has attempted to prescribe an international code of conduct in the sphere of trade. But there was no enforcement authority to oversee the compliance of GATT regulations by contracting parties and to settle their trade disputes.

2. Problems in the Formulation of General Rules:

The members of GATT are much diversify in nature, they had varied in economic and political motives and they were also at different stages of development. These reasons created difficulty in framing and implementing uniform general rules of conduct concerning trade, tariffs and payment.

3. Less Benefits for the LDC’s:
The most of the members of GATT were in the category of the LDC’s. The GATT had provided less benefit to these countries. At present, there are more restrictive trade arrangements in the world. The Commodity-to-Commodity based approach has proved to be detrimental to the interests of LDC’s.
This approach creates difficulty in their future planning of production and exports. The GATT also not given any compensation to the less developed countries on account of damage to their economies caused by the actions of developed countries.

4. Quantitative Trade Restrictions:
The GATT had certainly ensured the sealing down of tariff structure but the quantitative trade restrictions remained for a long time outside the GATT ambit. Consequently, the developed countries had used with impunity the quantitative trade restrictions such, as import quotas, export subsidies, voluntary export restraints, health and safety regulation etc.Even though the 1993, agreement of GATT disapproved the adoption of quantitative trade restrictions and the substitution of tariffs in their place, it did not prohibit the contracting parties from taking recourse to them.

Dunkel Proposals:

The 8th round GATT popularly known as Uruguay round was started in September 1986. The negotiations were expected to be concluded in 4 years but on account of differences among participating countries on certain critical areas, agreement could not be reached. To remove this deadlock Mr. Arthur Dunkel, Director General of GATT, compiled a very detailed document, popularly known as Dunkel Proposals. This proposal culminated into the Final Act on December 15, 1993. India signed this proposal on April 15, 1994. All 124 members the countries signed on this agreement.

WTO
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.
Headquarter : Geneva, Switzerland
Established: 1 January 1995
Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations (1986-94)   
Membership: 160 countries on 26 June 2014 
Budget: 197 million Swiss francs for 2013
Secretariat staff: 640
Head: Roberto Azevêdo (Director-General)

Functions:
• Administering WTO trade agreements
• Forum for trade negotiations
• Handling trade disputes
• Monitoring national trade policies
• Technical assistance and training for developing countries
• Cooperation with other international organizations  


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