Tuesday, 17 November 2015

IBPS Exam English Passage : Reading Comprehension Quiz : 18

Directions (Q.1-10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

          India is one of the largest electricity markets round to world and, at an expected demand growth of 9 per cent, may soon be number 3 after US and China. India generates nearly 900 billion kWh (units) of electricity annually, of which 70 per cent is from coal. Currently, the electricity demand-supply gap is managed through load shedding. The consumer makes investments for coping with load shedding and ends up paying a premium of 1.70-1.96 over and above the grid power cost (survey carried out in the city of Gurgao). This premium further increased if we consider the subsidy on diesel; the current under-recovery to oil marketing companies on diesel is Rs 10 per liter.
           Based on the report by the working group on power, at the end of the 12th plan, after taking care of energy efficiency and demand-side management measures, India will need 1403 billion kWh. In the 12th plan base scenario, coal forms about 65 per cent of the capacity addition followed by 20 per cent through renewable source of energy.

          Let’s evaluate and optimum route to meet the objectives for India to achieve 24x7 power. There are two main challenges: first, the electricity demand varies with time of the day as well as with the time of the year. Second, the electricity generated from renewable sources such as wind and solar varies across the day and across the year. For example, in the month of august last year, a 300 per cent variation was observed between a lean and peak day. The combined effect of demand variation and infirmness of renewable power leads to continuous load variation on other sources of generation, including coal-based thermal power plants. Such cyclical operation of coal power stations leads to an increase in the cost of power plants on account of lower efficiency and increase in O&M expenses and fixed cost per unit of electricity generated.

          An effective way to address this challenge is to convert a small proportion (15-20 per cent) of the expected coal capacity addition into gas (LNG)- based Flexible power. LNG is comparatively expensive and the cost of power from such stations, if considered on a stand-alone basis, will appear to be high. However, the savings due to efficient operation of coal plants rendered by the flexibility provided by LNG plants far outweigh the high cost of LNG, in other words, the overall cost of power in the system will be lower. This flexible capacity can be installed In 12-15 month period and distributed along the gas pipeline, enabling rapid capacity addition. Their proximity to load centers provides independence from electricity transmission bottlenecks. Moreover, such flexible capacity doubles up as emergency reserve and helps the country bounce back very swiftly in case of emergency situations such as black-outs.

1. How is the electricity demand-supply gap managed?
(1) by installing step-up transformers at power grid   stations
(2) through load shedding
(3) by installing hydroelectric power plants
(4) by using solar energy
(5) all the above

2. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
A. India is the third largest electricity market in the world.
B. India generates 70% of its total electricity from coal.
C. About 30% of electricity is generated from nuclear and hydroelectric power plants.
      (1) only A                  
      (2) only B         
      (3) only C
      (4) only A and B          
      (5) All A, B and C

3. How can the challenges of continuous electricity supply be effectively addressed?
(1) by switching over from AC to DC mode of power supply
(2) by curtailing the demand of electricity
(3) by installing more solar power plants
(4) by converting a small proportion of the expected coal capacity addition into LNG – based
Flexible power
(5) None of these

4. Find the correct statement on the basis of the given passage.
(1) the electricity demand remains constant throughout the year.
(2) the combined effect of demand and supply leads to continuous load variation only on coal-based thermal power plants.
(3) the amount of electricity generated from renewal sources varies across the day and
across the year.
(4) the overall effect of load variation has no effect on the net electricity generation cost.
(5) all the above

5. Which of the following is/are the characteristic (s) of LNG – based Flexible Power?
(1) it is comparatively less expensive.
(2) the overall cost of power generated through this system is lower.
(3) the flexible power can be used in emergency situation
(4) only 1 and 2           
(5) only 2 and 3

Directions (Q.6-8): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
6. Scenario
(1) situation                 
(2) scenery        
(3) contemporary
(4) problem                 
(5) terms

7. Lean
(1) bend            
(2) support        
(3) thin
(4) tender                   
(5) less

8. Infirmness
(1) strength                 
(2) weakness     
(3) capacity
(4) hardness      
(5) tenderness

Directions (Q.9-10): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

9. Optimum
(1) inadequate    
(2) at par
(3) maximum
(4) few             
(5) little

10. Proximity
(1) ability          
(2) nearness      
(3) activity
(4) distant                   
(5) longevity


1.    (2)
2.    (2)
3.    (4)
4.    (3)
5.    (5)
6.    (1)
7.    (5)
8.    (2)
9.    (1)
10. (4)

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