Tuesday, 3 November 2015

IBPS English Language Notes (Topic : Use of Nouns)

Noun and Number
Dear Aspirants, We know what is noun and what is number. But there are some issues in Noun and Number which makes us confused often. Lets discuss them

  • Some nouns always singular  in number, so they take the singular verb
    • Scenery, Luggage, Information, Advice, Machinery, Stationary, Poetry, Issue (Children), Rice, Soap, Bread, Brick etc
      • (There are no plural forms for the above words)
        • Two cakes of Soap (Not Two Soaps)
        • Two Pieces of brick (Not Two Bricks) 
        • The sceneries of Kashmir are beautiful 
        • The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful
  • Some nouns are always plural in number. So, they take a plural verb.
    • Alms, Thanks, Goods, Regards, Wishes, Proceeds, Premises, Credentials, Riches, Pants, Pantaloons, Jeans, Tights, Shorts, Pajamas, Scissors, Forceps, Spectacles, Binoculars etc
      •   Convey my regard and wishes to your parents
      •  Convey my regards and wishes to your parents
      •   I have never used such a scissors in my life
      • I have never used such scissors in my life
      • I have never used such a pair of scissors in my life
  • Some nouns appear plural. But they are singular in number. So we should take a singular verb
    • Wages, Summons, Gallows, News, Politics, Electronics, Billboards, Measles, Mathematics etc
      •   The court has issued two summons to the minister, but he hasn't turned up yet
      •  The court has issued two summonses to the minister, but he hasn't turned up yet
      •  I have a good news to tell you 
        • Here there is no plural for News.
We shouldn't use articles for these types of words.
      •  I have good news to tell you 
      •   Measles is a disease (not are)
  • Some nouns appear singular but they are plural in number. So, they take a plural verb.
    • Cattle,  Infantry,  Police,  Poultry,  Swine,  Artillery,  Peasantry,  Gentry etc
      •  This cattle is mine
      •   These cattle are mine
  • Some nouns can be used either as singulars or as plurals without changing their form
    • Sheep, Deer, Offspring, Species, Aircraft, Space Craft, Salmon, Yoke etc
      •   These are many sheep’s in the fields 
      • There are many sheep in the fields
Formation of Plurals :
  • Boy   -------------  Boys
  • Man    -------------  Men
  • Tooth    -------------  Teeth
  • Dog    -------------  Dogs
  • Ox    -------------  Oxen
  • Child    -------------  Children
  • Belief    -------------  Beliefs
  • Sheaf    -------------  Sheaves
  • Leaf    -------------  Leaves
  • Datum    -------------  Data
  • Stratum    -------------  Strata
  • Matrix    -------------  Matrices
  • Brother    -------------  Brothers 
  • Brother - In - Law     -------------  Brother - in - Laws   
                                                                  Brothers - in - Law   
  • Man - Servant     -------------  Men - Servants

Noun and Case

  1. Nominative Case (Subjective Case)
  2. Accusative Case (Objective Case)
  3. Possessive Case 
  1. Sachin is a Cricket player (Nominative)
  2. We like Sachin (Accusative)
  3. This is Sachin's Bat (Possesive)
  • 'S (apostrophe)  --- This is used for Human-beings / Living Things
  • Of    -------- Non Living / Living Things
Note : Usually we don't use 'S(apostrophe S) for Non Living Things.
  •   This is Ravi's Book
  •   The building's roof needs to be repaired
  • The roof of the building needs to be repaired
Exceptions : 
  • There are some exceptions for the above mentioned case. We can use 
 'S(apostrophe S) for Time, Distance, Weight etc
    • An Hour's Time
    • A Ton's weight
Note : When a singular noun, which doesn't end in S (Hissing sound), The possessive case takes "S"
  • Kamal's Pen
  • Karthik's Watch
  • Ramu's Dress
Note : When a singular noun, ends in S(Hissing Sound), the possessive case takes only apostrophe ( ) at the end (no need to add S)
  • Keats' Poetry
  • Lotus' Petals
When a plural noun doesn't end in S, the possessive case takes apostrophe S ('S)
  • Children's specialist
  • Women's college
  • Men's single
When a plural noun ends in 'S', the possessive case takes only apostrophe at the end.
  • Boys' Hostel
  • Girls' College
When two persons and one possession in the sentence, the possessive case should be added to the latter
  •   I went to Raju's and Rani's house but i found the couple absent
  •   I went to Raju and Rani's house, but i found the couple absent (Whats the difference? here Raju and Rani are couple. So obviously they live in the same house :) so two persons and one possession, so we should use 'S to the latter (Rani)
When two different things are referred to, the possessive case should be added to both 
  •  India and China's problems are different
  •   India's and China's problems are different (because, here India and china are different countries and can’t be same)
The comparison should be made between the same cases
  •    India's problems are the same as Pakistan 
  •   India's problems are the same as Pakistan's 
In apposition, the possessive case should be added to the latter
  •    This is Prime minister's manmohan singh's speech
  •   This is Prime minister manmohan singh's speech
Both of and apostrophe cannot usually be used i none sentence
  •  This is the house of Gandhi's 
  • This is the house of Gandhi 
Note : But the following expression is an exception
  • Its ----->  Of  It
  • It's ----->  It is, It Was, It Has
  • Hers ---> Of  Her
  •   Her's --> Her was, Her is (but these are wrong expressions)
  • yours ---> Of Your
  •  Yours ----> Your Is, Your Was (How horrible it is... so that’s the reason why, our teachers tell us don’t use apostrophe while writing yours faithfully at the end of letter. But we neglect it ;)
Note : Don’t use apostrophe for pronouns
  • He is my friend
  • He is a friend of mine
  • He is her friend
  • He is a friend of hers
  • He is a friend of my brother 
  • He is a friend of my brother's
Care should be taken while using a relative pronoun
  • I have seen many of amitabh's movies who is considered a great actor 
  • I have seen many movies of amitabh, who is considered a great actor  
  • I have read Shakespeare's four great tragedies who is the greatest writer in English
  • I have read four great tragedies of Shakespeare who is considered the greatest writer in English 
  • I have read the four great tragedies of Shakespeare which are worth reading 
  • I have read Shakespeare's four great tragedies which are worth reading 
In compound nouns the possessive case should be added to the last word
  • He is my brother's-in-law friend   
  • He is my brother-in-laws’ friend 
In the sentences with "One of These" the possessive should be used carefully
  • I met, the minister at one of my friends house  
 (This means, I have number of friends, and i met the minister in one of those friend's house)
  • I met the minister at one of my friend's house 
 (This means, my friend have number of houses and i met the minister in one of those houses)

Noun and Verb / Pronoun Agreement

In this Post we shall discuss about the Noun and Verb agreement of the sentences. Have a look at the following points. These points will help you to use correct verbs while writing sentences.

  • In the sentences, with " One of The" and a relative clause, the verb should be Plural. Confused??? see the example.
    • Aamir is one of the students who has paid the fee    
    • Aamir is one of the students who have paid the fee   

  • In the sentences with the "Only one of The" and a relative clause, the verb should be Singular.
    • Aamir is the only one of the students who have paid the fee. 
    • Aamir is the only one of the students who has paid the fee. 
                               Got the difference???
  • When two nouns joined by "and" have their own articles, it is plural in number. 
    • The lecturer and the Principal is on the leave.  
    • The lecturer and the principal are on the leave.
                       What is the difference? We are saying THE lecturer and THE principal. So they are TWO people. So we should use ARE instead of IS. Have a look at another Rule. So that you can get the rule in detail.
  • But, when two nouns joined by "and" with an article before the first are treated as Singular.
    • The lecturer and principal are on leave.  
    • The lecturer and principal is on leave. 
                   Here, we are joining TWO nouns with and and using a Sing article (THE) before them. Simply, we are using one THE for two nouns. So, we are talking about a single person. So we should use IS instead of ARE. 
Check the following examples
    • I have a black and a white dogs. (Two dogs)
    • I have a black and white dog. (One dog)
  • When two nouns are joined by "and" refers to one thing, singular verb can be used.
    • Bread and butter is a healthy food.
    • The horse & carriage is at the door. 

Noun and Pronoun Agreement :

  • When a collective noun is unanimous, it takes a singular verb. 
    • The committee has taken its decision unanimously.
  • But when a collective noun is NOT unanimous, it usually takes a plural verb & plural pronoun (adj) 
    • The committee are divided in their opinion. 
 Article shared by Shivani Jha

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