Sunday, 29 November 2015

IBPS Bank PO Clerk Exam : English Reading Comprehension - 21

Directions : (Q.No.1-10) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold in the passage to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

It is difficult to compare countries because various factors such as size, culture, history, geography, natural endowments, geopolitics and internal polity comes into play, There are some goals, which can be achieved by smaller countries; but sometimes smaller countries find it difficult to embark upon certain big technological plans even if they have the funds, because the size of the domestic market is too small. If we consider the bigger countries, the closest comparison to India is China, though there are many crucial differences. The Chinese vision is to prepare the country for entry into the ranks of midlevel developed nations by the middle of the twenty-first century. Acceleration of the nation’s economic growth and social development by relying on advances in science and technology is pivotal in this.

Documents describing the Chinese vision state that science and technology constitute premier productive forces and represent a great revolutionary power that can propel economic and social development. It is interesting to note that the main lessons the Chinese have drawn from their past performance is their failure to promote science and technology as strategic tools for empowerment. They also point to the absence of mechanisms and motivations in their economic activity to promote dependence on science and technology. Similarly, they hold their scientific and technological efforts were not oriented towards economic growth. As a consequence, they conclude, a large number of scientific and technological achievements were not converted into productive forces as they were too far removed from China’s immediate economic and social needs. The Chinese vision is therefore aimed at exploiting state-of-art science and technology to enhance the nation’s overall power and strength, to improve the people’s living standards, to focus on resolving problems encountered in large-scale industrial and agricultural production and to effectively control and alleviate pressures brought on by population, resources and the environment. By the year 2000, China had aimed at bringing the main industrial sectors up to the technological levels achieved by the developed countries in the 1970’s or ’80s, and by 2020 to the level they would have attained by the early twenty-first century. The aim is to bridge the overall gap -with the advanced world. There is a special emphasis on research and development or high technologies that would find defense applications. Some of these technologies are critical for improving the features of key conventional weapons. Some technologies are meant for enhancing future military capabilities. Other efforts are aimed at maintaining the momentum to develop capabilities for cutting-edge defense technologies. They call for unremitting efforts in this regard with the aim of maintaining effective self-defense and nuclear deterrent capabilities and to enable parity in defense, science and technology with the advanced world.

1. Comparison between two countries becomes difficult because-
(A) The countries differ in their internal political systems.
(B) Each country has its own culture and natural resources which differ from those of others.
(C) The countries with homogeneous backgrounds are many in number.
a) Only (A)
b) Only (B)
c) Only (A) and (B)
d) All the three (A) , (B) and (C)
e) None of these

2. Why can’t smaller countries take up big technological planning?
a) They have other goals to achieve
b) They have smaller domestic market size
c) Smaller countries lack technological know-how
d) Bigger countries do not permit them to do so
e) None of these

3. What is the goal of China to be accomplished by the middle of 21st century?
a) To become one of the most developed nations.
b) To surpass the level of all middle level developed nations by a good margin
c) To be the most influential super power
d) To be the most developed nation
e) None of these

4. What-according .to the Chinese vision can boost sociology-economic development?
a) Science and Technology
b) Minds united with revolutionary powers
c) Premier productive forces
d) A vision which propels development
e) None of these

5. Which of the following have the Chinese identities as their pitfall(s) from their past?
(A) Lack of orientation of Science and Technology towards economic growth.
(B) Lack of mechanisms In their economic activities to promote use of Science & Technology
(C) Neglect of Science & Technology as a strategic measures for empowerment.
a) (A) & (B) only
b) (B) & (C) only
c) (A) & (C) only
d) All the three (A) , (B) & (C)
e) None of these

6. The scientific and technological accomplishments of China could ………….
a) remain dysfunctional
b) be transformed into productive forces
c) be utilized for motivating economic activities
d) be promoted through political will
e) None of these

(Q.No.7-8) Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.

a) Powers
b) Measures
c) Habitats
d) Findings
e) Gifts

a) Stated
b) Directed
c) Deciding
d) Leaning
e) Sure

(Q.No. 9-10) Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.

a) Central
b) Trivial
c) Decisive
d) Fundamental
e) Imperative

a) Irrelevant
b) Unmanageable
c) Irreparable
d) Inauspicious
e) Irritating


1. (c)      2. (B)     3. (A)     4.(A)      5. (D)     6. (B)     7. (E)      8. (B)     9. (B)     10. (A)

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